A Fortress, Fort or Stronghold were constructions and buildings designed for specifically defending a region. Humans have been constructing defensive works and walls to keep themselves and their communities safe for thousands of years.
In Medieval times, nobility built castles (a fortified place of residence for an important lord or nobility) through which they controlled the areas surrounding them. The castle and its grounds were the base from which they sent raids and defended themselves. The whole formed a community.
In modern times, Gated Communities might be seen as being similar to that walled in communities, even though the dangers faced are quite different. The reasons why gated communities are created are not always because of actual dangers that need to be conquered, but it serves different types of circumstances in different situations.
In different countries, these gated communities have different “motivations”. There are different motivations for the need to create gated communities. These motivations also differ between different countries.
There are countries that do not have a lot of gated communities, for instance, Australia, Canada, and United Kingdom, etc. On the other hand, you have countries like, The United States, South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, etc. that has growing numbers of Gated Communities.
Reasons for Gated Communities:
China; most of the gated communities in China, like in most parts of the world, cater for the rich. Many foreigners also chose to live in gated communities. The intent of gated communities in China is to reduce crime and increase the order and safety of the public.
India; have many gated communities and neighbourhoods. Mostly they are created for upper-class and upper-middle-class, and the very wealthy. Although, ethnicity, also play a big part in the many gated communities. People with the same background feel more comfortable together.
Mexico; gated communities are a result of a very large income-gap that exists in the urban area. The close proximity of poverty and wealth created a high-security risk.
Brazil; has many gated communities throughout Rio de Janeiro. One of the first big projects for gated communities was constructed in Sao Paulo during the military dictatorship in the 1970s. The city experienced steep increases in taxes and faced poverty, rising crime levels, downtown decay and rural exodus.
Argentina; have many gated communities, especially in Buenos Aires. In the 1990s, with the consolidation of liberal reforms, gated communities became important for people to try to cope with the high levels of criminal and violent activity.
Peru; has quite a few gated communities situated in, mostly, the wealthy districts. These are home to a lot of prominent Peruvians.
Saudi Arabia; expatriate workers are provided with company-housing and are required to there. Tight military security is established for the compounds that house big western populations.
There are differences in the motivations and reasons for gated communities in each part of the world. Safety and security play a big factor in most of the communities, however, for some; it will always be for the status and a symbol of wealth.